Thursday, June 11, 2020
Continued learning is critical to the success of every writer and networking is a crucial component of the publishing journey. For new and experienced writers, finding a worthwhile writing conference can be difficult and daunting. So, when it comes to choosing the right writing conferences, itÃ¢â¬â¢s wise to choose carefully. The more you know about the writing world and how it all works, the easier it will become to find the industryÃ¢â¬â¢s best writing conferences. Not to mention writing conferences that are the best for your writing needs at every stage of your journey. Reasons to Attend a Writing Conference Change of scenery; chance to devote more time to writing. Meet other writers who might be willing to critique your manuscript. Get tips to improve your writing. Pitch your ideas to agents or editors. Find a professional writer or editor willing to edit your work. Learn more about your genre or subcategory. Network with industry insiders in the publishing world. Of course, there are many additional reasons that writers may want to attend writing conferences. Every writer is different, and writers need different things at different stages. Types of Writing Conferences General Genre Specific Writing Retreats Where to Find the Best Writing Conferences Genre Specific Association Websites These include the Romance Writers of America (RWA), Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America (SFWA), and the International WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Writing Guild (IWWG). All of these publish annual conference schedules. Regional Writing Groups These include the Appalachian AuthorsÃ¢â¬â¢ Guild, the Midwest Travel Writers Association, and the Pacific Northwest Writers Association. All of these writing groups are great places to ferret out the best writing conferences in a specific region. Local Writing Groups Groups like the California Writers Club or the Ohio Writers Guild often host, promote, or sponsor writing workshops and conferences. Community Colleges These can be a great resource for finding the best writing conferences near you. Look for announcements in their continuing education catalog pages or on English department bulletin boards. Some community colleges even create a traditional writers conference like the annual LakelandÃ¢â¬â¢s Writers Conference and Workshop or Write in the Harbor, a regional writers community hosted by Tacoma Community College. State Universities and Colleges These can be a great place to find announcements about conferences for writers, such as the Writing the Rockies Conference hosted by Western State Colorado University. The ShowMe Writers Masterclass offered through a partnership between Mizzou Publishing, and the Columbia Chapter of the Missouri WritersÃ¢â¬â¢ Guild in November of 2016, was another great University hosted conference. In addition to the above, writing organizations or websites for writers, such as Shaw Guides or this list at Writers Relief, are worth considering. The Write Life is also one of my favorites for information about all things writing, including conferences for writers. In fact, Dana Sitar just published a great list of 30 Fantastic WriterÃ¢â¬â¢s Conferences for Authors, Bloggers, and Freelancers that lists a variety of the best writing conferences and where to find them. 2017 Writing Conferences In the Eastern U.S. New York Pitch Conference This is held at the Ripley Greer Studios in New York City, from March 16, 2017 to March 19th, 2017. Commercial authors take note. Participation is typically less than 65 writers, separated by genre into workshops. Writers Digest Conference East This will be held August 18-20th 2017 at the New York Hilton Midtown. First-time writers rave about this annual conference. Nearly one thousand writers were in attendance for the 2016 conference, so save the date and register early. 2017 Writing Conferences In the Western U.S New Worlds, New Voices (NWNV) Conference This is planned for February 14 through February 19, 2017, aboard the Queen Mary in Los Angeles, California. The goal of the professionals at the NWNV Conference is to Ã¢â¬Å"discover and develop new SFF authors and projects with an aim towards commercial novel and short fiction publication.Ã¢â¬ Willamette WriterÃ¢â¬â¢s Conferences These are held in Portland, Oregon. They were founded half a century ago by writer, Kay Snow to Ã¢â¬Å"bring published and unpublished writers together for mutual help and support.Ã¢â¬ Writers at all phases of their careers in all genres of writing attend meetings, the annual conference, or workshops. San Francisco Writers Conference This is held at the Mark Hopkins Hotel from February 16-19, 2017. It will feature Keynote Speakers Heather Graham, William Bernhardt (Founder Red Sneaker Writers), and John Perkins as well as a varied industry experts including authors, agents, editors and publishers. 2017 Writing Conferences In the Southern U.S. If you are a writer looking to escape the colder climate or just get away from it all for a few days, you can kill two birds with one stone with the Writers Winter Escape Cruise 2017. Writers will board the Royal Caribbean ship and hone their craft or pitch their story ideas to a captive audience of industry professionals, while sailing to Nassau, Bahamas, and Cozumel, Mexico. If a cruise doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t exactly float your boat or isnÃ¢â¬â¢t in the budget this year, the Asheville Christian Writers Conference will be held from February 17 through February 19th at The Cove in Asheville, NC. The goal of this conference is Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦to spread the Word of God through fiction and non-fiction books, screenplays, scripts, articles, and blogs.Ã¢â¬ The St. Augustine Author-Mentor Workshop will be held from February 25 to February 28th, 2017 in St. Augustine, Florida. This workshop provides a balanced mix of seasoned professionals to work one-and-one with new and emerging authors. This workshop is great for those who live in the area and for those who want to fly in to escape the cold February weather in other parts of the country. WeÃ¢â¬â¢ve only just scratched the surface with these writing conferences. But trust me, whether you are a freelance writer, a blogger, an e-book writer, screenwriter, poet, or you intend to publish a novel, the best writing conferences are out there, just waiting for you to find them.
Tuesday, May 26, 2020
Essay Writing Samples For Grade 9The key to being able to write an essay on any subject is a good amount of time to dedicate. If you put in the time needed to write an essay, there is no doubt that it will be one that a teacher will look upon favorably. The number of grade 10 essay topics is fairly large, which means that you have a good deal of work to do if you want to write an essay for grade 9. In this article, I will share with you some essay writing samples for grade 9.One of the best essay topics is sociology. This is a topic that almost any student can tackle and be proud of. There are many ways to approach it, however.If you find that you are a good writer of essays, you might find that having one or two friends to critique your essay is helpful as well. If you have a good grade on your essay, you can always find your way into an essay writing competition. In a contest, you can do some additional editing and research to improve your essay.Essay writing samples for grades 9 a re also given for other subjects, such as English literature. If you are interested in English literature, you will find that there are many ways to approach this topic. It can be either difficult or easy, depending on how well you understand the topic and how long you want to take to write it.Grammar can be tricky. You can try to use a variety of different writing strategies in order to help avoid grammar mistakes. Writing a first draft of your essay helps you see the errors you may have made and correct them before you submit it. If you do not find that your essay has been corrected, you can use a writing software program to proofread your essay.Another essay writing sample for grade 9 is the essay on science. It is important to consider all the factors involved in creating an essay on science. You have to think about what the questions are that you are trying to answer. A good way to approach this topic is to look at the common mistakes that people make when writing about science .In conclusion, essay writing samples for grades 9 are available for many subjects. You have to ensure that you thoroughly research the subject matter that you wish to write about. Essay writing samples for grade 9 help you to find the best topic to write about and what questions to answer. In the end, you should be able to write an essay that a teacher will be pleased with.
Sunday, May 17, 2020
An Overview of Potential National Security Threats Public Health and National Security: Assessing Potential Threats Identifying the primary threat to U.S. national security interests is a difficult task given the pervasiveness of multiple threats of these kinds. Indeed, a number of unique threats have emerged in recent years. A variety of non-traditional concerns regarding U.S. national security should become important issues in the years ahead, and issues of these kinds should be incorporated into the overall U.S. national security strategy. One such issue is disease. The United States is now more vulnerable to epidemics of disease than it has been for quite some time in part because of the globalizationÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦One of these is the potential destabilizing effect that extensive and long term environmental damage may exercise. For example, the greater the impact of climate change, the more likely it will be that domestic unrest within the United States related to food, health, economic, and environmental difficulties will take place. The general consensus among experts in the fields that are related to environmental science is that significant climate change and other environmental difficulties are taking place, and that these will likely impact human well-being in the future. Political and economic conditions of the kind that are impacted by environmental conditions exercise an inevitable impact on national security as well (Schwartz, 1998). Bioterrorism and Economic Instability National security considerations regarding the spread of disease, and potential epidemics, and potential environmental difficulties overlap with what is presently the most significant U.S. national security concern and that is the threat of international terrorism. The genuine threat of bioterrorism means that disease related concerns and environmental concerns overlap with potential threats involving terrorism. This concern is enhanced by the possibility that terrorist organizations may be able to obtain biologically dangerous materials, and use these for destructive purposes. For example, in the early 2000s the United
Friday, May 15, 2020
At a wedding reception or grooms dinner, the couples parents may be tasked with coming up with toasts. Here are a few quotes for the father of the groom to weave into his speech of well wishes, advice, and touching memories to share with the crowd and the newlyweds. Helen Rowland Falling in love consists merely in uncorking the imagination and bottling the common sense. J. Krishnamurti The moment you have in your heart this extraordinary thing called love and feel the depth, the delight, the ecstasy of it, you will discover that for you the world is transformed. Mother Teresa Ã¯ » ¿It is not how much we do, but how much love we put in the doing. It is not how much we give, but how much love we put in the giving. Tom Mullen MarriageÃ¢â¬âas its veterans know wellÃ¢â¬âis the continuous process of getting used to things you hadnt expected. Andre Maurois A successful marriage is an edifice that must be rebuilt every day. Ogden Nash To keep your marriage brimming, with love in the loving cup, whenever youre wrong, admit it; whenever youre right, shut up. Victoria Secunda, Women and TheirÃ Fathers, 1992 Sons are for fathers the twice-told tale. Jane Austen I pay very little regard to what a young person says on the subject of marriage. If they profess a disinclination for it, I only set it down that they havent seen the right person yet. Zsa Zsa Gabor A man in love is incomplete until he is married. Then hes finished. Joey Adams A psychiatrist asks a lot of expensive questions; your wife asks for nothing. Joseph Leunig Love one another and you will be happy. Its as simple and as difficult as that. Mignon McLaughlin A successful marriage requires falling in love many times, always with the same person. Henry David Thoreau There is no remedy for love but to love more. Nanette Newman A good marriage is at least 80 percent good luck in finding the right person at the right time. The rest is trust. Sir Harold Nicolson The great secret of a successful marriage is to treat all disasters as incidents and none of the incidents as disasters. Paul Tillich The first duty of love is to listen. Alfred A. Montapert The man or woman you really love will never grow old to you. Through the wrinkles of time, through the bowed frame of years, you will always see the dear face and feel the warm heart union of your eternal love. Winston Churchill A family starts with a young man falling in love with a girl. No superior alternative has been found. Alfred A. Montapert The secret of health, happiness, and long life: If you simply learn how to accept and express love, you will live longerÃ¢â¬ ¦be happierÃ¢â¬ ¦grow healthier. For love is a powerful force. Antoine de Saint-ExupÃ ©ry Love does not consist of gazing at each other, but in looking outward together in the same direction. Greek Proverb A heart that loves is always young. Hawkeye Pierce in M*A*S*H Without love, what are we worth? Eighty-nine cents! Eighty-nine cents worth of chemicals walking around lonely.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Introduction Education is a very important part of maintaining and growing as a culture. Many huge influencers have taken their own philosophies of education and changed the way we look at learning. Whether it is educating the children of today or bringing religion into the stream, our curriculum is always changing with their ideas in mind. John Locke and Erasmus provide extremely different philosophies when it comes to the curriculum of education although they have both impacted the way we teach today dramatically. Although there were a lot of child educators who were strong in what they did, John Locke is most evident within our schooling today with the ideas concerning young childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s education and the thoughts on the empirical method. With the structure set in place by these powerful and compelling individuals, we can constantly challenge the way we look at our curriculum today and strive for a better way to teach the future generation. John Locke: Philosophies and Contributions During the enlightenment, John Locke was constantly teaching and promoting his philosophies. The first major idea that he supported was first suggested by Aristotle (Murphy, 166) which stated that children were born a blank slate or tabula rasa, they were completely free of sins and ready to absorb all that was to learn. Most of LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s work revolved around the breakdown of a childÃ¢â¬â¢s mind and how capable and willing they were to learn. He proposed the concept that children were not immatureShow MoreRelatedJohn Locke : The Most Influential Philosophical And Political Thinker917 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Key to Locke John Locke Ã¢â¬Å"proved to be the most influential philosophical and political thinker of the seventeenth centuryÃ¢â¬ (Kagen 213). He lived in a period of great political change; LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s upbringing came to influence his philosophies, and these ideas had much significance in regards to the Enlightenment. Locke was born on August 29, 1632 in Wrington, Somerset (John Locke 9: 478). Early on came the outbreak of the English Civil War. Anglican and possessing Puritan sympathies, LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s fatherRead MoreAnalysis Of John Locke s The Of The Golden Era Essay1393 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthe Renaissance and William Shakespeare treated us to the best writings and plays in the English language. Likewise, John Locke is a man who accomplished what many men could not. He single handedly developed a political system that had a focus on liberty, his work would help influence many men from both sides of the Atlantic. Aside from being a brilliant political theorist, Locke was an author who wrote many outstanding writings. He is remembered as being one of the best English philosophers of allRead MoreThe Inspiration of the Declaration of Independence1203 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesimportant for us to understand the philosophies these men went by, and why Thomas Jefferson wanted incorporate their philo sophies in his grand ideas. We also need to understand what was happening at the time when the Declaration was written. These are all questions that we are going to dive into to understand why Thomas Jefferson wrote the famous Declaration of Independence. One of the great philosophers that Thomas Jefferson followed was John Locke. John Locke was a British philosopher who wasRead MorePropelling Rational Thought Over Compelling Empiricism1459 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAaron Nicely Intro to Philosophy 02-09-2016 In this paper I intend to examine the rationalist philosophy of Rene Descartes and fundamental empiricism of John LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s philosophical arguments, in particular their ideas relating to the science of man, his identity and attempt to explain distinctions between the two. As I lay the framework of my argument it is important to understand the precepts that serve as the underpinning for the views considered by Descartes and Locke respectively. RationalismRead MoreTwo Sided Coin: Thomas Hobbes vs. John Locke Essay905 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Two-sided coin: Thomas Hobbes vs. John Locke There are always two-sides everything including people and the government, kind of like science vs. faith view. With Thomas Hobbes and John Locke, they give the impression to be on opposite sides when it comes to people, society and the government even and yet both were Englishmen. Hobbes was born 5 April 1588 and died 4 December 1679; he is best known today for his work on political philosophy. While John Locke was 29 August 1632 and died 28 OctoberRead MoreComparing the Ideas of Locke and Freire846 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesunderstanding of the educational contributions of three different philosophers/theorists with ideas that are hotly contested and are often at cross purposes. Students will be able to distinguish between Associationism and Critical Pedagogy and how the former contributed to the latter. Students will be able to comprehend and state the contrast and comparison of the ideas of Locke and Freire. Prerequisite Skills: High School reading comprehension Course work/Reading: Locke, Spencer and Freire TheRead MoreBusiness Ethics: John Locke Essay1696 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesBusiness Ethics: John Locke Business Ethics Business ethics is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"a specialized study of moral right and wrong that focusses on moral standards as they apply to business institutions, organizations, and behaviorÃ¢â¬ (Velasquez, 2014, p.15). Business ethics is the study of moral standards that focusses primarily on how these standards may apply to social systems and/or organizations. For this paper I will be focusing on one of the great minds of business ethics, John Locke, his ideas andRead MoreThe Effects of Economic Imperialism on Colonization in Canada516 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagescolonization of indigenous peoples in Canada. Since the colonial era marked the beginning of imperialism in North America, an intricate web of power and domination have formed leaving Indigenous communities in the grip of its economic philosophy. This has led to the ongoing contribution to the disposition of Indigenous peoples in Canada. Economic imperialism can be defined as the need for countries to expand their territories in o rder to collect resources from their colonies. This illustrates the inherent unsustainabilityRead MoreA Summary Of John Locke And Jean-Jacques Rousseau1651 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageshumanity through educationÃ¢â¬ (Norris, 2017, slide 20). John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau were two important philosophers of education who showed an actual respect for children and Ã¢â¬Å"wrote treaties that advocated more child-centered, natural approaches for the development and education of the youngÃ¢â¬ (Platz Arellano, 2011, p.54). Although they differed on the nature vs nurture debate, some teaching methods and the education of girls, Locke and Rousseau did agree on many theories and their influenceRead MoreCurrent Policies And Politics : What Should Be An Individual s Connection With Society?887 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesits impact upon the relationships between members of society (Moseley, n.d.). Regardless of whether they are in the camp of liberalism like John Locke or the socialist c amp of Karl Marx, great political philosophers have areas of a agreement as well as areas of discord. Areas of Agreement and Disagreement Between Locke and Marx With a cursory look at Locke and Marx it may appear as though they do not share much common ground yet this is certainly not the case. In several areas these two philosophers
Middle Tennessee State University (MTSU) is one of the largest universities in Tennessee; however, they do not offer enough housing to provide for all of their students. As a result, students are expected to find their own housing off-campus. Hence, students must live in off-campus apartment complexes that are expensive, too far away, and difficult for young students to rent. While there are some benefits to off-campus housing, students face many problems in securing these types of housing situations. The prices of off-campus housing are high and the locations are often too far away from campus to walk. In addition, many apartment complexes do not want young, college-aged people living there. The main problem for students at MTSU is that there simply is not enough on-campus housing available. Although the student population has grown steadily over the past several years, the university has not added on-campus housing options for those students. Because of that, students are forced into seeking other options. In fact, 83% of students live off-campus (Niche) One option for students is to go to apartments that have been designed for college students. However, in these types of apartments, students pay an all-inclusive fee for their rent and utilities. They may choose their own roommates, however, if they do not know anyone to live with, the apartment office staff will choose roommates for them. There are many allegations of discrimination in these types of situations. In anShow MoreRelatedProfessors: A StudentÃ¢â¬â¢s Greatest Tool666 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesI am writing to you, MTSU Administration, not only as a current student of MTSU, but as an observer. After reading the article Ã¢â¬Å"Are Colleges Worth the Price of AdmissionÃ¢â¬ in which Andrew Hacker and Claudia Dreifus discuss the multiple ways in which colleges may not be as sound of an investment as they seem, I could not help but think of the very university that I call home. Hacker and Dreifus donÃ ¢â¬â¢t just talk about the shortcomings that many universities face today, they also discuss various waysRead MoreForrest Hall Building For University Essay770 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesI agree with the students who want to change the name of the Forrest Hall Building on MTSU campus, because I think our students have the responsibility as those with the power to change this name since we donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to our state university to represent something hateful. When MTSU built its ROTC building in 1954, President Smith named it Forrest Hall in honor of Nathan Bedford ForrestÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation as an Ã¢â¬Å"interpid confederate cavalry leader who won fame with his brilliant raids. Maybe that was ForrestÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreI Want to Major in Computer Science665 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesdays and the percentage of marks obtained in the Board of Intermediate Education have helped me for joining the undergraduate course in Computer Science and Engineering in the esteemed and great institution na med Narayana Engineering College in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. In Bachelors, I had maintained an excellent academic record with an overall GPA of 8.91, ranking between top 10 where the department consists of 120 students. Throughout my course I had acquired a great knowledge of fundamentalsRead MoreThe Negative Impacts Of Social Networking981 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe negative impacts of social networking to the students Many students who study at Middle Tennessee State University (MTSU) use social networking sites. However, little is known how much, why, and how they use these sites. Facebook, Instagram, and twitter are the most popular sites on social media, and they publish a lot of pictures, videos, and news. Although they have a very negative effect on students because of the large amount of misguided information on these sites that students unknowinglyRead MoreMiddle State University s Final Exams966 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesGiven the thought of Middle Tennessee State UniversityÃ¢â¬â¢s final exams are in five weeks makes most if not all students anxious. Procrastination begins, stress rises, and sleep decreases with most students. According to Brown University, Ã¢â¬Å"In a 2001 study, only 11% of college students have good quality sleep, and 73% have occasional sleep problems.Ã¢â¬ This means almost three out of four quarters of college students have sleeping problems such as insomnia. Howeve r, sleep is very important to the humanRead MoreThe United States Of America1323 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesDuring the late nineteenth century, the United States of America was at the time were a huge number of immigrants who emigrated to the U.S., mainly from Europe. The people in Europe had heard about rumors of the country of the United States that had effects on people s decisions to emigrate to America, Home of the brave. That is, still going on, even today, especially from every part of the globe, because to have the true American dream. The people always called this country of Country of ImmigrantsRead MoreSummary Of Let The Celebrating Begin 5907 Words Ã |Ã 24 Pages This book is about a wonderful girl who briefly shared her life with us and was always ready to take chances. A girl who valued friendships, relationships, and thought both should be fun and lasting. While she was attending school at Lipscomb University she fell in love. Not the love she expected, the man that w ould win her love, but instead her heart was in missions. She may not have fully realized that yet but her friends observed it. Here are two of the last posts she made to Facebook. Her
Question: Discuss about the Compulsory Vaccination of Children. Answer: Massive campaigns have been mounted against polio around the world over for years (Chaturvedi et al., 2009). The efforts have necessitated a commendable decline in polio cases to a tune of 98%; from a suspected 3,500 cases annually a decade ago, only 37 cases were reported last year. However, there are still pockets of polio cases being reported annually in some countries such as Pakistan (Obregn et al., 2016). 1 in every 200 cases of polio results in irreversible paralysis. About 5-10% of those paralyzed die when their breathing muscles become immobilized. Immunization of children against most diseases is largely voluntary with the exception of a few including polio (Mangrio, Alam Shaikh, 2008). The success story of mandatory immunization against polio is full of fascinating twists and turns. Mandatory immunization enjoys the support of proponents; it also draws most of its critiques of society and religion (Jegede, 2007). This essay explores the hurdles mandatory vaccination of ch ildren against polio has undergone in Pakistan. Pakistan is a war-torn nation. Its economy is struggling at best. Like its neighbors, most of its nationals live in abject poverty (Khan Qazi, 2013). Preventable communicable diseases are common in the population living below a dollar per day. According to the WHO (2015), there is a need for a strong political will to make sure that millions of Pakistan children get immunized. Statistics reveal that a little over three million Pakistan children do no complete their immunization schedule annually, rendering them susceptible to life-threatening preventable diseases. Pakistans immunization coverage varies across the nation with some regions scoring poorly; less that 50% of the children being fully immunized against deadly diseases such as tetanus, measles, and polio are some districts (WHO, 2015). A high-level mission from the WHO and UNICEF expressed concerns that the Pakistan Government was not moving with the required speed to implement immunization recommendations. The mission further pledged support for the immunization program. According to these experts, it is a tragedy when children perish of preventable diseases. Millions of lives of children across Pakistan are put at risk each day due to limited access vaccines. The eradication of smallpox is ascribed to mandatory vaccination around the globe. Under the recommendation of the WHO and the CDC, most governments legislated in dealing with outbreaks in the areas of their jurisdiction (Khowaja, Khan, Nizam, Omer Zaidi, 2012). The Pakistan government should permit its local governments to make decisions with regards to rolling out polio vaccination drives in the areas of their jurisdiction. Such drives can target all vulnerable individuals, in this case, children. However, exceptions must be made for those who are likely to demonstrate against such programs. Until such a time when all populations at risk have been vaccinated against, mandatory vaccination should be the way to in Pakistan. This is a cost effective and friendly approach to preventing polio and similar communicable diseases. Additionally, it should be part of the general public health policy. Ordinarily, vaccination programs are achieved through the combined efforts of state entities that mostly develop and recommend vaccines (Cole Swendiman, 2015). This is made possible with the support of legislatures and local boards of health. It is not fully precise to term it mandatory vaccination because the Pakistan government cannot criminally punish parents and guardians for not bringing their children to the hospital for vaccination or compulsorily subject children to vaccination. As an alternative, the government can archetypally permit school enrolment when parents provide proof of vaccination polio (Nishtar, 2010). However, the government should monitor the situation carefully because mischievous parents can opt for homeschooling in case they which to bypass the vaccination requirements. In addition, the Pakistan authorities must be aware and ready to grant vaccination exemptions under religious and philosophical intentions. In addition, exemptions must also be made for tho se who cannot be vaccinated for medical reasons (Swendiman, 2011; Warraich, 2009). The link between enrollment in schools and vaccination policies need to be made clear. Pakistan health officials tasked with protecting the public with from the dangers of polio need to realize that mass vaccination is a sure way of attaining sufficient levels of population immunity enough to contain possible outbreaks even with the existence of pockets of unvaccinated children among the population. This is supported the principle of herd immunity. Vaccination by itself is incapable of yielding 100% immunity against a disease. In some instances, vaccinated individuals still contract diseases (Closser, 2010). Nonetheless, because of herd immunity is an adequate number of people in a population are vaccinated; the whole population ceases to be vulnerable to the disease. In this light, mass vaccination not only needs to be regarded as an individual medical choice but also as an undertaking to secure the health of the entire population. Following the popularity of public schooling, many governments opted to condition school attendance to small pox vaccination. Towards the end of the last half of the last century, many governments had embraced this practice. The same can be done for polio. The Pakistan government can limit school enrollment to children who have been vaccinated against polio not unless sufficient medical proof has been provided to direct otherwise. Adopting this policy is reasonable when we take into account the heightened risk of communicable diseases in limited resource settings such as Pakistan. By mandating the vaccination during school enrollment, the authorities would be making sure that the youngest population vaccinated initially becomes the oldest in society (Mushtaq et al., 2010; Khan et al, 2015). Vaccination programs have faced challenges in both the legal and social fronts for decades. Some of the critiques have cited personal liberties and possible reduced efficacy of the vaccines. In the early 19th C, courts characteristically advocated for the adoption of mandatory vaccination packages and the allocation of power to local authorities. More notably, to rip the potential of mandatory vaccination policy, educating the public on the importance of such rulings (Modlin, 2010; Mushtaq et al., 2010; Khan et al., 2015). It has been argued that prevention of future epidemics lies with making use of current technology. In a similar manner the advances in agriculture have saved more lives that those claimed by wars, governments are faced with the dilemma of whether to make it mandatory for their people to be compulsorily vaccinated. It is not deniable that there is a few side effects vaccination. It is also not deniable that vaccinations may be contradicting the religious and the philosophical wishes of certain people. They should be still mandatory considering that the benefits outweigh the setbacks. The public gets to be protected, the side effects are minimal, and future epidemics are averted (Mushtaq et al., 2010; Khan et al., 2015). Vaccinations augment public health and create a society where members are treated equally and given a chance to live a healthy life. Despite the argument side effects, no significant studies have been conducted to proof that they occur. In a study conducted in Britain, only 28 cases of 10 million vaccinations against swine flu reported side effects. Well, people die a day in the day for innumerable reasons. However, people tend to be on high alert when the deaths occur around the time of immunizations. It is at this time that people throw around speculations that are not founded on science and therefore misleading the public. As such, the severe effects claimed to emanate from vaccinations may be difficult to be proven because many other factors can cause such reactions. Deciding against immunizing children entails taking a much bigger risk. If such children come in contact with polio-infected children, the potential of contracting polio is significantly high. In the economic front, immunized people hardly miss school or work because they hardly fall sick; thereby helping the society to grow socially and economically (Kazi, Khalid Kazi, 2014). As it has been shown by some of the world greatest philosophers, vaccines protect the right to live. On grounds social contract, it is possible for people to surrender some of their freedoms to state authorities to allow for the protection fundamental interests. Polio vaccination ought to be one of such times. While mandatory vaccination may ignore one religious or philosophical view or desire, the protection of the right to life should be supreme. Individuals tasked with polio vaccination in Pakistan need to make the critiques aware that the sanctity of life is supreme over other wants and views. One has to be alive to demand basic human rights and express views and desire of religion and philosophical inclinations. In addition, the desire not to be vaccinated harms both the individual and others who have not been vaccinated but have a desire to be vaccinated. Someone may be too lazy to go out to hospitals and health centers for vaccination. Such people, if not forced to go for vacc ination, they can spread the disease to others. If it is left up to them, they will never go for it, as such, a slight push to undergo mandatory vaccination is in their best interest and the society (O'Reilly et al., 012). History has proven that vaccination is the surest way of preventing epidemics in the future. The modern world is free of epidemics of past diseases such as smallpox. This is because governments made it mandatory for their citizens to undergo the exercise. The same can be replicated for polio vaccination in Pakistan. In the early 1980s, an outbreak of H1N1 was reported. However, vaccination was not made mandatory. This is has necessitated the worldwide pandemic of H1N1 reported in the world today. Through mandated vaccination, possible mutations of polio can be averted. The H1N1 influenza virus has been reported to have mutated causing a more severe version of the disease. Time vaccinations can avoid such mutations. Those who claim that vaccines cause disease need to remember that vaccines are continually monitored for safety. They also need to remember that like any other medication, some minor side effects are to be expected. Some of the possible side effects expected include sore arm momentarily after vaccination. Occasionally, some few people get sick after vaccination. However, the sickness is normally a weaker for of the disease that normally lasts for a shorter period of time. In most times, the weaker version of the disease does not need medication. It disappears on its own. Diseases are continually being spread. However, because of mandated vaccinations, we will continue to enjoy the protection against diseases. The Pakistan children need not be left behind. Despite the few polio vaccination setbacks, the future generations need the protection. It should be mandatory. Current technology can be deployed in making sure that the vaccines are availed in the remotest parts of Pakistan (Murakami et al.., 2014). In May this year, Ministers of Health from 194 states congregated to endorse new recommendations on ways of strengthening vaccinations programs in order to meet GVAP goals. It is regrettable that Pakistan is among the few countries that were not invited despite being invited. Pakistan missed out on an opportunity to interact with countries on the means the country can use to strengthen the governance and leadership of their immunization programs in addition to monitoring and surveying to avert polio outbreaks. The conference called on countries to strengthen and expand the vaccination services beyond infancy and mobilize domestic resources as well as for countries to work with others to meet GVAP goals. Health Ministers from the 194 countries also asked WHO Secretariat to continue offering support for countries lagging behind to ensure regional balancing in vaccine uptake and that each country works towards meeting its goals (Shah et al., 2011). Recommendations of scaling up of advocacy programs have been made in the past. According to the experts in the field of disease prevention and vaccination, improved understanding of the value of vaccination is likely to improve the uptake of the services; all geared towards meeting GVAP goals. Constant monitoring and reporting are necessary. In the Health Minsters meeting, countries were asked to report back on an annual basis made towards the realization of GVAP goals and targets. Such comparisons are critical for any country wishing to benchmark its progress, or lack thereof, towards having a polio-free nation. Pakistan, though not represented in the meeting needs to join others, reports its progress towards meeting GVAP goals with a particular focus on polio (Lenzer, 2011). Vaccination of health children with the intent of safeguarding the individual child and the community, in general, should be central to all vaccination programs. This entails subjecting the child to a theoretical risk exposure to disease immunized against; whether live, attenuated or killed. Times are gone when people question the decisions of their governments or physicians. However, those times are long behind us. People are becoming more and more aware of medical procedures (Owais et al., 2011). New treatment recommendations regard patients as partners in the decisions made. This is integral to ensuring that the patients take charge of their treatment plans. Well, underage individuals may not be in a position to make sound decisions. In such instances, parents are tasked with the responsibility of making the decisions of behalf of their children. It is always advisable for physicians to pay cognizance for parental autonomy in making medical decisions not unless the minor is at the highest risk of not receiving the vaccines (Kazi, Khalid Kazi, 2014). Debates have been doing rounds on whether it is justifiable to scare the public with statements that make them aware that not vaccinating their children endangers the society. In this case, stubborn parents can be stripped of the right to decide for the child. Such decisions can be made by the government of physicians through legislation. But again, it is important to evaluate on who stands to gain the most from a childs vaccination. There are many stakeholders with vested interests (Kazi, Khalid Kazi, 2014). The community gets a disease free health population from which it draws it workforce. The pharmaceutical companies will get a ready market for their products while the individual child gets to live a normal healthy life; which is instrumental in meetings personal goals at every stage of life. All these groups need awareness with regards to the improvements that have been made of vaccines since Edward Jenners initial administration of vaccines in the late 17th century. Jenners v accines had thimerosal and mercury that were responsible for the undesirable side effects reported back then. In early 1900, four children died while twenty people developed severe abscesses and sixty reported systemic infections following receipt of staphylococcus aureus vaccines. Since then, remarkable improvements have been made with regards to vaccine delivery. One of the improvements that have been effected includes having lower levels of mercury in vaccines to a tune of 187.5 and below. Presently, vaccines meant for children do not contain thimerosal and mercury with the exception of the influenza vaccine. Besides, numerous trials of the polio vaccine have been conducted, and it has been proven to be safe. Many people are against vaccinations because they believe that they are harmful and contain many different ingredients that hurt them References Swendiman, K. S. (2011). Mandatory vaccinations: Precedent and current laws. Cole, J. P., Swendiman, K. S. (2015). Mandatory Vaccinations: Precedent and current laws.Current Politics and Economics of the United States, Canada, and Mexico,17(2), 255. Mangrio, N. K., Alam, M. M., Shaikh, B. T. (2008). Is Expanded Programme on Immunization doing enough? Viewpoint of health workers and managers in Sindh, Pakistan.JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association,58(2), 64. Chaturvedi, S., Dasgupta, R., Adhish, V., Ganguly, K. K., Rai, S., Sushant, L., Arora, N. K. (2009). Deconstructing social resistance to pulse polio campaign in two North Indian districts. Jegede, A. S. (2007). What led to the Nigerian boycott of the polio vaccination campaign?.PLoS medicine,4(3), e73. Obregn, R., Chitnis, K., Morry, C., Feek, W., Bates, J., Galway, M., Ogden, E. (2016). Achieving polio eradication: a review of health communication evidence and lessons learned in India and Pakistan.Bulletin of the World Health Organization,87(8), 624-630. Khan, T., Qazi, J. (2013). Hurdles to the global antipolio campaign in Pakistan: an outline of the current status and future prospects to achieve a polio free world.J Epidemiol Community Health, jech-2012. Khowaja, A. R., Khan, S. A., Nizam, N., Omer, S. B., Zaidi, A. (2012). Parental perceptions surrounding polio and self-reported non-participation in polio supplementary immunization activities in Karachi, Pakistan: a mixed methods study.Bulletin of the World Health Organization,90(11), 822-830. Nishtar, S. (2010). Pakistan, politics and polio.Bulletin of the World Health Organization,88(2), 159-160. Closser, S. (2010).Chasing polio in Pakistan: why the world's largest public health initiative may fail. Vanderbilt University Press. Kazi, A. M., Khalid, M., Kazi, A. N. (2014). Failure of polio eradication from Pakistan: Threat to world health.J Pioneer Med Sci,4(1), 8-9S. Warraich, H. J. (2009). Religious opposition to polio vaccination.Emerging infectious diseases,15(6), 978. Murakami, H., Kobayashi, M., Hachiya, M., Khan, Z. S., Hassan, S. Q., Sakurada, S. (2014). Refusal of oral polio vaccine in northwestern Pakistan: a qualitative and quantitative study.Vaccine,32(12), 1382-1387. Lenzer, J. (2011). Fake vaccine campaign in Pakistan could threaten plans to eradicate polio.BMJ: British Medical Journal,343. Shah, M., Khan, M. K., Shakeel, S., Mahmood, F., Sher, Z., Sarwar, M. B., Sumrin, A. (2011). Resistance of polio to its eradication in Pakistan.Virology journal,8(1), 457. Owais, A., Hanif, B., Siddiqui, A. R., Agha, A., Zaidi, A. K. (2011). Does improving maternal knowledge of vaccines impact infant immunization rates? A community-based randomized-controlled trial in Karachi, Pakistan.BMC public health,11(1), 239. O'Reilly, K. M., Durry, E., ul Islam, O., Quddus, A., Mir, T. P., Tangermann, R. H., ... Grassly, N. C. (2012). The effect of mass immunisation campaigns and new oral poliovirus vaccines on the incidence of poliomyelitis in Pakistan and Afghanistan, 200111: a retrospective analysis.The Lancet,380(9840), 491-498. Khan, M. U., Ahmad, A., Aqeel, T., Salman, S., Ibrahim, Q., Idrees, J., Khan, M. U. (2015). Knowledge, attitudes and perceptions towards polio immunization among residents of two highly affected regions of Pakistan.BMC Public Health,15(1), 1100. Mushtaq, M. U., Shahid, U., Majrooh, M. A., Shad, M. A., Siddiqui, A. M., Akram, J. (2010). From their own perspective-constraints in the Polio Eradication Initiative: perceptions of health workers and managers in a district of Pakistan's Punjab province.BMC international health and human rights,10(1), 22. Modlin, J. F. (2010). The bumpy road to polio eradication.New England Journal of Medicine,362(25), 2346-2349.